Canku Ota Logo

Canku Ota

Canku Ota Logo

(Many Paths)

An Online Newsletter Celebrating Native America

 

May 17, 2003 - Issue 87

 
 

pictograph divider

 
 

History of the Ottawa and Chippewa Indians of Michigan
GRAMMAR OF THE OTTAWA AND CHIPPEWA LANGUAGE

 
 
by ANDREW J. BLACKBIRD, Late U.S. Interpreter, Harbor Springs, Emmet Co., Mich.
 
 
credits: submitted by Timm Severud (Ondamitag)
 

VOCABULARIES

One, ... Pa-zhig. Two, ... Nezh. Three, ... Ness-we. Four, ... Ne-win.
Five, ... Naw-non. Six, ... Ne-go-twos-we. Seven, ... Nezh-was-we. Eight, ... Nish-shwas-we.
Nine, ... Shong-swe. Ten, ... Me-toss-we. Twenty, ... Nezh-to-naw. Thirty, ... Ne-se-me-to-naw.
Forty, ... Ne-me-to-naw. Fifty, ... Naw-ne-me-to-naw. Sixty, ... Ne-go-twa-se-me-to-naw.
Seventy, ... Nezh-wo-se-me-to-naw. Eighty, ... Nish-wo-se-me-to-naw.
Ninety, ... Shong-gaw-se-me-to-naw. One hundred, ... Go-twok.

Father, ... Os-se-maw, pl. g. Mother, ... O-gaw-shi-maw, pl. g. Brother, ... We-kaw-ne-se-maw. Sister, ... O-me-say-e-maw.
Gr'father, ... O-me-shaw-mes-e-maw. Gr'mother, ... O-ko-mes-se-maw. Cousin, m. ... We-taw-wis-e-maw. Cousin, fm., ... We-ne-mo-shay-emaw.
Uncle, ... O-me-shaw-may-e-maw. Aunt, ... O-nou-shay-e-maw. Boy, ... Que-we-zayns, pl. og. Girl, ... Quay-zayns, pl. og.
Man, ... Au-ne-ne, pl. wog. Woman, ... Au-quay, pl. wog. Old man, ... Au-ke-wa-ze, pl. yog. Old woman, ... Me-de-mo-yay, yog.

Ae, yes. Ka-ge-te, truly so. Pe-nau! hark! Pa-kau, stop.
Kau, no. Kau-win, no (emphatic). Ka-go, don't. Kaw-ga-go, none.
Nau-go, now. Au-zhon-daw, here. E-wo-te, there. Ne-gon, before.
Aush-kwe-yong, behind. Pe-tchi-naw-go, yesterday. Pe-tchi-nog, just now. Au-no-maw-yaw, lately.
Au-gaw-won, hardly. Au-pe-tchi, very. Kay-gaw, almost. Mou-zhawg, always.
Ne-sawb, alike. Pin-dig, inside. Ne-se-wo-yaw-ing, between. Wau-bung, to-morrow.
Wau-e-baw, soon. Way-wib, quickly. Naw-a-gotch, slowly. O-je-daw, purposely.
Saw-kou, for example. Me-naw-gay-kaw! to be sure! Kaw-maw-me-daw, can't. Pin-di-gayn, come in.

We-yaw, ... The body. O-dib, ... Head. O-te-gwan, ... Face. O-don, ... Mouth.
Osk-ke-zheg, ... Eye. O-no-wau-e,* ... Cheek. Otch-awsh, ... Nose. O-daw-me-kon, ... Jaw.
O-da-naw-naw, ... Tongue. We-bid, ... Tooth. We-ne-zes, ... Hair. O-kaw-tig, ... Forehead.
O-maw-maw, ... Eyebrow. Kaw-gaw-ge,* ... Palate. O-kaw-gun, ... Neck. O-do-daw-gun, ... Throat.
O-pe-kwawn, ... Back. O-pe-gay-gun, ... Rib. O-me-gawt, ... Stomach, O-naw-gish, ... Bowel.
Osh-kawt, ... Belly. O-kwan, ... Liver. O-kun, ... Bone. O-nenj, ... Hand.
O-neek, ... Arm. O-dos-kwon, ... Elbow. O-kawd, ... Leg. O-ge-dig,* ... Knee.
O-bwom, ... Thigh. O-zeet, ... Foot. O-don-dim, ... Heel. O-ge-tchi-zeet, ... Big toe.
O-ge-tchi-nenj, ... Thumb.      

Pe-nay-shen,... Bird. Wing-ge-zee, ... Eagle. Pe-nay-se, ... Hawk. Mong, ... Loon.
Me-zhe-say, ... Turkey. She-sheb, ... Duck. Kaw-yawshk, ... Gull. Tchin-dees, ... Bluejay.
May-may, ... Woodcock. Pe-nay, ... Partridge. Au-dje-djawk, ... Crane. O-me-me, ... Pigeon.
Au-pe-tchi, ... Robin. Awn-dayg, ... Crow. Au-nawk, ... Thrasher. Paw-paw-say, ... Woodpecker.
Ke-wo-nee, ... Prairie hen. Maw-kwa, ... Bear. Mooz, ... Moose. Me-shay-wog, ... Elk.
Maw-in-gawn, ... Wolf. Au-mick, ... Beaver. Maw-boos, ... Rabbit. Pe-zhen, ... Lynx.
Au-ni-moosh, ... Dog. Au-ni-mouns, ... Puppy. Au-zhawshk, ... Muskrat. Wau-goosh, ... Fox.
Shaw-gway-she. ... Mink. A-se-bou, ... Raccoon. Me-she-be-zhe, ... Panther. She-gos-se, ... Weasel.
Au-saw-naw-go, ... Squirrel. Ke-gon, Fish. Ke-gons (dim.), minnow. Naw-me-gons, trout,
Maw-zhaw-me-gons, brook trout, Maw-may, sturgeon. O-gaw, pickerel. She-gwaw-meg, dog fish.
Au-saw-way, perch. O-kay-yaw-wis, herring. Au-she-gun, black bass. Au-de-kaw-meg, whitefish.
Ke-no-zhay, pike. Paw-zhe-toun, sheep head. Maw-maw-bin, sucker. Maw-ne-tons, insect.
O-jee, house fly. Me-ze-zawk, horse fly. Au-mon, bumblebee. Au-moans (dim), bee, hornet.
May-may-gwan, butterfly. Au-kou-jesh, louse. Paw-big, flea. O-ze-gog, woodtick.
A-naw-go, ant. A-a-big, spider. Saw-ge-may, mosquito. Mo-say, cut worm.
O-quay, maggot.      

Paw-gawn, nut; (dim, paw-gaw-nays, hazelnut or other small nut) Au-zhaw-way-mish, pl. eg; beech tree.
Au-zhaw-way-min, pl. on; beech nut. Me-te-gwaw-bawk, pl. og; hickory tree.
e-gwaw-baw-ko paw-gon, pl. on; hickory nut. MPaw-gaw-naw-ko paw-gon, pl. on; walnut.
Me-she-me-naw-gaw-wosh, pl. eg; apple tree. Me-she-min, pl. og; apple.
Shaw-bo-me-naw-gaw-wosh, pl. eg; gooseberry bush. Shaw-bo-min, pl. og; gooseberry.
Paw-gay-saw-ne-mish, pl. eg; plum tree. Paw-gay-son, pl. og; plum.
Aw-nib, pl. eg; elm. Aw-doup, pl. eg; willow.
Shin-gwawk, pl. wog; pine Ke-zhek, pl. og; cedar.
Au-bo-yawk, pl. wog; ash We-saw-gawk, pl. og; black ash.

Me-daw-min, pl. og; corn. O-zaw-o-min, pl. og; yellow corn. Mis-kou-min, pl. og; red raspberry.
Wau-be-mis-kou-min, pl. og; white raspberry. Wau-kaw-tay-mis-kou-min, pl. og; black raspberry.

Au-Kee; the world, the earth, land, country, soil. Pay-maw-te-se-jeg au-king, the people of the world.
Pay-maw-te-se-jeg au-king, the people of the world. Taw-naw-ke-win, country or native land.
Ke-taw-kee-me-naw, our country. Maw-kaw-te au-kee, black earth or soil.
Me-daw-keem, my land. Au-ke-won, soiled; also applied to rich land.
Ne-besh, water; ne-be-kaw, wet land. Wau-bawsh-ko-kee, marsh land.
Au-ke-kaw-daw-go-kee, tamarack swamp. Ke-zhe-ke-kee, cedar swamp.
Au-tay yaw-ko-kee, swamp, swampy land. Shen-gwaw-ko-kee, pine land.
Ne-gaw-we-kee, sand; ne-gaw-we-kaw, sandy. Kong-ke-tchi-gaw-me, the ocean.
Ke-tchi-au-gaw-ming, across the ocean. Se-be (pl. won), river; se-be-wens (dim), (pl.an,) brook.
Ke-te-gawn (pl. on), farm; ke-te-gaw-nes (dim), garden.
Ke-te-gay we-ne-ne, (pl. wog), farmer.  

Ke-zes, sun; te-bik-ke-zes, moon; au-nong (pl. wog), star. Ke-zhe-gut, day;
te-be-kut, night. Ne-bin, summer; pe-boon, winter. Ne-be-nong, last summer;
me-no-pe-boon, pleasant winter. Tau-gwan-gee, fall; me-nou-kaw-me, spring. Au-won-se-me-nou-kaw-ming, year ago last spring.
Maw-tchi taw-gwan-ge, bad or unpleasant fall. No-din, wind; no-wau-yaw, the air. No-de-naw-ne-mot, windy.
To-ke-sin, calm; ne-tche-wod, stormy. Au-pe-tchi ne-tche-wod, very stormy.  

Wig-wom, house; wig-wom-an, houses. Au-sin wig-wom, stone house. Au-naw-me-a-we-gaw-mig, a church.
Te-baw-ko-we-ga we-gaw-mig, a court house. Me-no-say, handy Me-no-sayg, that which is handy. Au-no-ke, work
A no-ket, he that is working. Wo-be, he sees. Wau-yaw-bet, he that sees. Pe-mo-say, he walks
Pe-mo-sayt, he that is walking. Pe-me-bot-to, he runs. Pe-me-bot-tot, he that runs.  
       
Get him, nawzh. Get it, naw-din. Help him, naw-daw-maw. Help it, naw-daw-maw-don.
Call him, maw-doum. Ask for it, naw-dou-don. Go to him, nam-zhe-kow. Go to it, naw-zhe-kon.
Meet him, maw-kwesh-kow. Meet it, naw-kwesh-kon.    
       
Ne-dje-mon, my boat. Ne-dje may, I paddle. Ne-dje-bawn, my soul. Ne-do-ge-mom, my master.
Ne-gwes, my son. Ne-daw-nes, my daughter. Ne-taw-wes, my cousin. Ne-kaw-nes, my brother.
Ne-daw-kim, my land. Ne-ne-tehaw-new, my child.    
       
He sleeps, ne-baw He is dead, ne-bou. He is sleepy, au-kon-gwa-she. He died, ke-ne-bou.
He is white, wau-besh-ke-zee. He is afraid, sa-ge-ze. He is lonely, aush-ken-dom. He is lazy, ke-te-mesh-ke.
He is killed, nes-saw He is well, me-no-pe-maw-de-ze.    
       
Ne-tawn, first. Ne-tawn ke-taw-gwe-shin, he came first No-gon, before. Ne-gon-ne, he goes before.
Au-ko-zee, sick. Au-ko-ze-we-gaw-mig, hospital. Au-gaw-saw, small. O-gaw-sawg o-naw gun pe-ton, bring small
Au-gaw-won, scarcely. Au-gaw-won ne-wob, I scarcely see.    
       
Once, ne-go-ting. Only once, ne-go-ting a-taw. Not there, no-go-tchi. Look elsewhere, ne-go-tchi e-naw-bin.
Change, mesh-kwot. He is elsewhere, ne-go-tchi e-zhaw. Full, mosh-ken. It is elsewhere, ne-go-tchi au-tay.
Fill it, mosh-ke-naw-don. Change it, mes-kwo-to-non.    
       
Saw-kon, go out. Pe-saw-kon, come out. Maw-tchawn, go away. Pe-maw-tchawn, come away.
Pe-to, to bring. Pe-ton, fetch it. Ash-kom, more and more.  
       
Nos, my father. Ash-kom so-ge-po, more and more snow. Kos, your father. Ash-kom ke-me-wau, more and more rain.
O-sawn, his father. Ash-kom ke-zhaw-tay, hotter and hotter. Ne-gaw-she, my mother. Ash-kom ke-se-naw, colder and colder.
Ke-gaw-she, your mother.      
       
E-ke-to, saying. E-ke-ton, say it. E-ke-to, he says. Ke-e-ke-to, he said.
Kay-go mon-daw e-ke-to-kay, do not say that. E-wau, he says [the same as e-ke-to, but used only in third person and cannot be conjugated]. E-naw-bin, look;
e-naw-bin au-zhon-daw, look here. A-zhawd, going; au-ne-pe a-zhawd? Where did he go? E-wo-te, there;
me-saw e-wo-te au-daw-yon-, there is your home. Au-zhe-me, there; au-zhe-me au-ton, set it there. Au-ne-me-kee, thunder;
an-ne-me-ke-kaw, it thundered. Awsh-kon-tay, fire; awsh-kon-tay o-zhe-ton, make some fire. n-je-gaw, leaked;
O on-je-gaw tchi-mon, the boat leaked. Kaw-ke-naw, all; kaw-ke-naw ke-ge-way-wog, all gone home. Ke-wen, go home. [This verb always implies home, but the emphatic expression is ke-wen en-daw-yawn.]
Son-gon (inanimate), son-ge-ze (animate), tough. Se-gwan, spring; se-gwa-nong, last spring (Chippewa dialect). Me-gwetch, thanks;
me-gwe-tchi-me-au, he is thanked. Taw-kwo, short; on-sawm taw-kwo, too short. Ke-me-no-pe-maw-tis naw? Are you well?
Ae, ne-me-no-pe-maw-tis. Yes, I am well. Ke-taw-kos naw? Are you sick? Kau-win ne-taw-ko-si-sy. No, I am not sick. Au-ne-pish kos e-zhat? Where did your father go?
O-day-naw-wing ezhaw. He is gone to town. Ke-ge-we-sin naw? Have you eaten? Ae, ne-ge-aush-kwaw-we-sin. Yes, I have done eating. Ke-baw-kaw-tay naw? Are you hungry?
Kaw-win, ne-baw-kaw-tay-sy. No, I am not hungry. Pe-mo-say-win, walking (noun); ne-pe-mo-say, I walk. Aum-bay paw-baw-mo-say-taw, let us go walking. Ne-ge-paw-baw-mo-say, I have been walking.
Ne-ge-paw-baw-mish-kaw, I have been boat riding. Aum-bay paw-baw-mish-kaw-daw, let us go boat riding. Maw-tchawn, go on, or go away. Maw-tchawn we-wib, go on quickly.
Ke-maw-tchaw-wog, the have gone. Aum-bay maw-tchaw-taw, let us go. Wau-saw e-zhaw, he is gone for away. We-kau-de-win, a feast;
we-koum, I invite him (to a feast). We-kau-maw-wog, they are invited (to a feast). Maw-zhe-aw, overpowered; maw-zhe-twaw, victorious.
ou-dje-ge-ze-win, or, me-naw-wo-zo-win, rejoicing. Mou-dje-ge-ze, or, me-naw-wo-ze, he rejoices. Au-no-maw-yaw ke-daw-gwe-shin, he came lately. Au-pe-tchi ke-zhaw-tay, it is very hot.
MKe-tchi no-din, it is blowing hard. Paw-ze-gwin we wib, get up quickly. Me-no e-naw-kaw-me-got, good news. Me-no e-naw-kaw-me-got naw? It is good news?
She-kaw-gong ne-de-zhaw-me, we are going to Chicago. She-kaw-gong on-je-baw, he came from Chicago. Saw-naw-got, difficult to overcome. Saw-naw-ge-ze, he is in difficulty.
Saw-naw-ge-ze-wog, they are in difficulty. Sa-ge-ze, he is frightened; sa-ge-ze-win, fright. Ke-gus-kaw-naw-baw-gwe naw? Are you thirsty?
Au-pe-tchi ne-gus-kaw-naw-gwe. I am very thirsty. Me-naw au-we, give him drink. Ne-bish me-naw, give him water to drink. O-daw-kim o-ge-au-taw-wen, he sold his land.
O-da paw-gaw-awn, the heart beats. O-da me-tchaw-ne, he has a big heart. Ke-ne-se-to-tom naw? Do you understand? Ke-ne-se-to-tow naw? Do you understand me?
Kau-win, ke-ne-se to-tos-no. No, I do not understand you. Ke-no-dom naw? Do you hear? Ae, ne-no-dom. Yes, I hear. Ke-pe-sen-dom naw? Do you listen?
Ke-maw-ne-say naw? Are you chopping? Maw-tchi e-naw-kaw-me-got naw? It it bad news? We-go-nash wau-au-yaw mon? What do you want? Au-nish au-pe-daw-taw-gwe-she non? When did you come?
Au-ne-pesh a-zhaw yon? Where are you going? Au-ne-pesh wen-dje-baw yon? Where are you from? Au-ne-dosh wau-e-ke-to yon? What shall you say? Au-nish mon-daw e-naw-gen deg? What is the price?
Maw-ne-say, he chops; ma-ne-sayt, he that chops. Ne-bwa-kaw, wise; ne-bwa-kawt, he that is wise.
Na-bwa-kaw-tching, they that are wise. Wa-zhe-tou-tching awsh-kou-te, they that make fire. O-zhe-tou aush-ko-tay pin-je ke-zhaw-be-ke-se-gun, ... Make ... fire ... in ... the stove. Wen-daw-mow way-naw-paw-nod au-zhon-daw, ... Tell him ... the cheap place ... is here.
Wen-daw-mow e-naw-kaw-me-gok, tell him the news. Taw-bes-kaw-be. ... Taw-be-e-shaw au-zhon-daw. He will come back. ... He will come ... here. On-je-baw. ... Wow-kwing on-je-baw. Coming from. ... He comes from heaven. Nau-go, now;
nau-go-a-ge-zhe-gok, to-day. Te-besh-kou, same, even; ta-te-besh-kon, even with the other. To-dawn mon-daw e-ne-taw, do that as I tell you.
Pe-sen-dow, listen to him; pe-sen-do-we-shin, listen to me. Me-saw-wen-dje-gay. ... Me-saw-me-dje-gay-win. ... He covets. ... Coveting. E-zhaw-yon gaw-ya ne-ne-gaw e-zhaw. If you will go and ... also ... I will go.
O-je-daw ne-ge-to-tem tchi-baw-ping. Purposely ... I did it ... to make laughter. Kaw-win ke-taw-gawsh-ke-to-se tchi-gaw-ke-so-taw-wod mau-ni-to, you cannot hide from God. Maw-no-a-na-dong taw-e-zhe-tchi-gay, let him do what he thinks. A-naw-bid. ... E-naw-bin a-naw-bid. In the way he looks. ... Do look in the way he looks.
Au-nish a-zhe-wa-bawk mon-daw? ... What ... is the matter ... with that? Au-nish a-zhe-we-be-sit au-we? ... What ... is the matter with him? Au-nish a-naw-tchi-moo-tawk? ... What ... did he tell you? E-zhaw. ... Au-ne-pish kaw-e-zhawd? He went. ... Where ... did he go?
E-zhaw-wog. ... Harbor Springs ke-e-zhaw-wog. They went. ... They went to Harbor Springs. Ne-daw-yaw-naw e-naw-ko-ne-ga-win. ... We have ... a rule, or, a law. O-we-o-kwon o-ge-au-taw-son. ... His hat ... he pawned.
Ne-be-me-baw-to-naw-baw au-pe pen-ge-she-naw. ... I was running ... when ... I fell.      

Note--Except some condensation and arrangement in the grammar, this work is printed almost verbatim as written by the author.--EDITOR.

Verbs

pictograph divider

Home PageFront PageArchivesOur AwardsAbout Us

Kid's PageColoring BookCool LinksGuest BookEmail Us

 

pictograph divider

 
  Canku Ota is a free Newsletter celebrating Native America, its traditions and accomplishments . We do not provide subscriber or visitor names to anyone. Some articles presented in Canku Ota may contain copyright material. We have received appropriate permissions for republishing any articles. Material appearing here is distributed without profit or monetary gain to those who have expressed an interest. This is in accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107.  
 

Canku Ota is a copyright © 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003 of Vicki Lockard and Paul Barry.

 
Canku Ota Logo   Canku Ota Logo

The "Canku Ota - A Newsletter Celebrating Native America" web site and its design is the

Copyright © 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003 of Paul C. Barry.

All Rights Reserved.

Site Meter
Thank You

Valid HTML 4.01!