Canku Ota - A Newsletter Celebrating Native America
August 12, 2000 - Issue 16

This Date In North American Indian History
from On This Date in North American Indian History at

Aug. 12, 1831: George Gaines, a white man the CHOCTAWs trust, is appointed Special Agent to supervise the "collection and removal" of the CHOCTAWs to the west bank of the Mississippi River. Here they will be turned over to the Army. The CHOCTAWs wanted Gaines to handle the entire process. They felt he would not exploit them. George was the younger brother of General Edmund Gaines.
Aug. 13, 1786:
In a letter to Colonel Benjamin Hawkins, President Jefferson expresses the idea that Indians do not own their lands, but are, instead, only "tenants at will" in lands that the United States had a mandate to own.
Aug. 14, 1812: Today Tecumseh tells Sir Isaac Brock, "We gave the forest-clad mountains and valleys full of game, and in return what did they give our warriors and our women? Rum and trinkets and a grave."

Tecumseh - Guardian of the Ohio

Aug 15, 1862: The SANTEE SIOUX's annuity has not arrived on time. On 8/5, the SANTEE surrounded the food warehouse serving the upper villages. The soldiers allowed them to take the food. The commander told Agent Thomas Galbraith to give the Indians the food on credit. The Indians got Galbraith to promise to distribute food to the SANTEEs in the lower villages. Today, Galbraith joins 4 local traders at the lower villages. The Indians soon realize Galbraith does not plan on distributing the food until the money arrives. Galbraith asks the local traders what they want to do. Andrew Myrick says, "If they are hungry, let them eat grass or their own dung." This comment would come back to haunt him when the SANTEEs revolt. The SANTEEs are furious, but they leave.
Aug. 16, 1812: SHAWNEE Chief Tecumseh has been commissioned as a Brigadier General by the British. With his Indians forces, he will be instrumental in the surrender of American force at Fort Detroit, today.
Aug. 17, 1806: Sacajawea & husband leave the Lewis & Clark Expedition today.

Cyrus Edwin Dallin (1861-1944) Springville, Utah
Aug. 18, 1863: As a part of the Canyon de Chelly Campaign, Kit Carson, and General James Charlatan, were trying to starve the NAVAJOs into submission. Today, General Charlatan will put a bounty on NAVAJO livestock. Every good horse or mule would bring twenty dollars, quite a sum for those days. Each sheep would earn one dollar.

Canyon de Chelly

Aug. 19, 1854: MINICONJOU SIOUX, named High Forehead, kills a sickly cow near Fort Laramie, in southeastern Wyoming. The cow's owner complains to the fort's commander. A brash Brevet Second Lieutenant John L.Grattan, and 30 volunteers leave the fort today to find the SIOUX involved. Grattan goes to Conquering Bear's BRULE SIOUX camp near Ash Hollow, and demands the Indian who shot the cow. Grattan makes numerous threats to the SIOUX, but they won't hand over High Forehead. During the parlay, a shot rings out, and Grattan's artillery gunners open fire on the camp. Conquering Bear tries to get both sides to stop shooting, but he is hit by an artillery round.
Aug. 20, 1851: One in a series of treaties with California Indians is signed today at Lipayuma. This treaty says it will set aside lands for the Indians and protect them from Americans.


Maria Antonia Piapa. Santa Ysabel. 1908

Aug. 21, 1871: Treaty Number Two (Manitoba Post Treaty), is concluded between the Canadian Government, and the CHIPPEWA. They sell 35,700 square miles of land, in exchange for certain reservation lands, an annuity, schools and other items.
Aug. 22, 1883: The Dawes Commission is sent to Dakota Territory to determine if the methods used to obtain SIOUX signatures on a land ceding treaty were fair. Today, Sitting Bull will address the commission at the Standing Rock Agency. The commissioners will treat Sitting Bull as any other SIOUX. Sitting Bull will be offended for not being treated as a great leader. He will lead the SIOUX out of the meeting. Eventually, he will be convinced by fellow SIOUX that he was not insulted, and he would meet with the commission a second time. This time it is the commissioners who are offended. Their efforts are to mold the Indians into white men. Sitting Bull will not accept this attitude.
Aug. 23, 1724: British forces under Capt. Moulton stage a supprise attack on an ABENAKI village at Norridgewock. 27 people, including a resident French priest Father Rasles, would be scalped by the English. The village would be burned. This would be a big blow to the spirit of the local Indians.
Aug. 24, 1816: William Clark, Auguste Chouteau, and Ninian Edwards, and representative of the POTAWATOMI, CHIPPEWA & OTTAWA tribes signed a treaty today in Saint Louis. The Indians would receive annuities for land giveaways. They would be allowed to peacefully hunt on their old lands as long as they remained in the hands of the Government.


Little Crow

Aug. 25, 1862: New Ulm, Minnnesota is evacuated due to the SANTEE SIOUX uprising.
Aug. 26, 1858: In what would be called "The Battle of Four Lakes," force under Colonel George Wright fight for about three hours with COEUR d'ALENE, COLUMBIA RIVER, COLVILLE, KALISPEL, and SPOKANE Indians. The Army will defeat the Indians.

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