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Canku Ota

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(Many Paths)

An Online Newsletter Celebrating Native America


December 29, 2001 - Issue 52


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This Date In


North American Indian History


from On This Date in North American Indian History at

Dec. 29, 1835: New Echota Treaty: the United States informs the CHEROKEEs that they are to appear in their capital city, New Echota, Georgia, to negotiate a treaty with the United States. They are informed that anyone not attending the council will be assumed to support any agreement reached there. Several CHEROKEE leaders opposed to the movement of the tribe to Indian Territory, are physically restrained so they cannot attend the meeting. Chief john ross will be held prisoner, without charges, for 12 days by Georgia militia. Of the estimated 18,000 CHEROKEEs, less than 500 will attend the treaty council. Today, a treaty (7 stat.478) will be signed by less than 100 CHEROKEEs which cedes all of the CHEROKEE lands in the east. The treaty signers, led by Elias Boudinot, Major Ridge and John Ridge, agree to the treaty with the provision that it receives approval of the majority of the CHEROKEE Nation. Although representatives of almost 16,000 CHEROKEEs will inform the government they do not endorse or support the treaty, the United States Senate will ratify it by a one vote margin.

Dec. 30, 1853: The Gadsden purchase is made today adding land to the United States in the southern parts of Arizona and New Mexico.
Gadsden Purchase Map

Dec. 31, 1954: Today, according to Federal Register Number 20fr00181, certain tracts of Indian Reservation land are "withdrawn from all forms of disposal under the public lands laws, including the mining and mineral leasing laws.

Jan. 01, 1965: The NISQUALLY Nation in Washington State, issue a proclamation today denouncing their treatment by the United States. The document states that the United States has not lived up to its treaty agreements. The NISQUALLY Nation therefore declared that in regards to non-NISQUALLY people "they no longer have the right to reside, tax or hunt or fish upon said lands or waters, within the ceded areas of the treaties made with the Indian peoples." They also compare the treatment of the Indian peoples by the United States Government, as similar to that of Hitler and the Jews.

Jan. 02, 1873: The MAKAH Reservation undergoes changes today by Executive Order.

Jan. 03, 1541: On this date, de Soto visits the main CHICKASAW town. He wants to visit Caluca, and he gets guides and interpreters from the CHICKASAW.

Jan. 04, 1883:

President Chester Arthur, by Executive Order, establishes the HUALAPAI reservation in WALAPAI Agency. Size: 1,142 square miles in Arizona Territory. Bounded by: Colorado River, 5 miles east of Tinnakah Spring, south 20 miles to summit of the high mesa, 40 degrees east for 25 miles to Music Mountains, east 15 miles, north 50 degrees east for 35 miles, north 30 miles to Colorado River.

Jan. 05, 1806: Sacajawea tells Lewis and Clark she wants to see a dead whale washed up on the beach in Oregon.
Menominee Reservation -NASA photo
Bosque Redondo Scene
Smithsonian Magazine

Jan. 06, 1864: To force the NAVAJOs to move to the Bosque Redondo Encampment, the Army gets Kit Carson to mount an expedition against the NAVAJOs in the Canyon de Chelly. Captain Albert Pfeiffer, and a small force, leaves Fort Canby on this date to meet Carson at the canyon. Carson is called "rope thrower" by the Indians.

Jan. 07, 1802: President Thomas Jefferson believes that the Indians have more land than they need. He feels that if they become indebted at the government trade houses, they will sell their lands to pay the debts. He has also voiced the opinion that if they become farmers, they will need less land. Today, he will address the WEA, POTAWATOMI, and MIAMI Indians on that latter issues. He extols the virtues of renewable food and clothing supplies. "We will with pleasure furnish you with implements for the most necessary arts, and with persons who may instruct you how to make and use them."

Jan. 08, 1700: Today, Pierre le Moyne, Sieur d'Iberville, will establish a fort and trading post post on the Mississippi River a few dozen miles south of present day New Orleans. It is his hope to establish friendly relations with the lower Mississippi valley Indians to keep them from allying with the English or the Spanish.

Jan. 09, 1789: The treaty with 6 different nations, which is signed today, refers back to the treaty signed on January 21, 1785. Two Indians will be held as hostages until prisoners held by the Indians are returned. New tribal boundary lines will be established. The Indians will be able to hunt in the lands which are ceded in this treaty, if they do so peacefully. The governor of the Northwest Territory must issue all trade licenses for trade with the Indians. No U.S. citizens will be allowed to live on Indian lands, without the Indians approval. Lands set aside for trading posts in the earlier treaty are confirmed. Signed by 28 Indians, and General Arthur St.Claire at Fort Harmar, near present day Marietta, Ohio.
Fort Harmar was built to replace Campus Martius at the mouth of the Muskingum River c.1788, for protection against Natives.

Jan. 10, 1961: Today, the Federal government will restore certain "nonmineral, unallotted, unreserved and undisposed of" lands on the Fort Berthold Indian Reservation in North Dakota to tribal ownership of the three affiliated tribes.

Jan. 11, 1972: Reverend Harold S.Jones, a SIOUX from South Dakota, will become the first American Indian to be made a bishop in the Episcopal Church.

For Information on This Date in Canada visit our friends at:

Canadian Aboriginal News


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