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Canku Ota

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(Many Paths)

An Online Newsletter Celebrating Native America


December 28, 2002 - Issue 77


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This Date In


North American Indian History


from On This Date in North American Indian History at

Dec. 28, 1835:
2nd SEMINOLE War: Wiley Thompson, SEMINOLE Agent, Lt.Constantine Smyth, and Erastus Rogers, are killed by anti-removal SEMINOLEs at Fort King, near present day Ocala in the northcentral part of Florida. Major Francis L.Dade's company of troops are marching from Fort Brooke on Tampa Bay, to Fort King. Near the Little Withlacoochee River, near present day Bushnell. They will be attacked by 180 SEMINOLEs. Of a total of 112 soldiers, only 3 will survive. Chief Micanopy is credited by many as firing the first shot which killed Major Dade. Chief Jumper killed Dade's adjutant. Only 3 SEMINOLEs will be killed. Osceola led the SEMINOLEs on several skirmishes this day. Today will be considered the start of the Second SEMINOLE War by the U.S. Army.

Dec. 29, 1890:
Wounded Knee Battle or Massacre (depending on which version you read) The Army will give Congressional Medals of Honor to the following soldiers: Sergeant William G. Austin, for "using every effort to dislodge the enemy"; company E musician John E. Clancy: "twice voluntarily rescued wounded comrades under fire of the enemy"; Private Mosheim Feaster, company E, for "extraordinary gallantry"; First Lieutenant Ernest A.Garlington for "distinguished gallantry"; First Lieutenant John C. Gresham for leading an attack into a ravine; Sergeant Richard P.Hanley, company C, for recovering a pack mule loaded with ammunition, while under heavy fire; Private Joshija B. Hartzog, company E, 1st artillery, for rescuing his wounded commander while under heavy fire; Second Lieutenant Harry L. Hawthorne, 2nd artillery, for distinguished conduct; Private Marvin C. Hillock, company B, for distinguished bravery; Private George Hobday, company A, for conspicuous and gallant conduct; Sergeant George Loyd, company I, for bravery, especially after being severely wounded through the lung; Sergeant Albert McMillian, company E, for leading by example; Private Thomas Sullivan, company E, for conspicuous bravery; First Sergeant Frederick Toy, company C, for bravery; First Sergeant Jacob Trautman, company I, for "killing a hostile Indian at close quarters" and remaining with the troops even though he was entitled to retire; Sergeant James Ward, company B, for fighting after being severly wounded; Corporal Paul Weinert, company E, for assuming command of his artillery piece when his officer was wounded; and Private Hermann Ziegner, company E, for conspicuous bravery.

Dec. 30, 1805:
The PIANKESHAW sign a treaty today (Wabash).

Dec. 31, 1813:
Indian, and British forces, under General Phineas, will attack Buffalo, New York today. They will burn the small village to the ground. Settlers will return soon, and rebuild.

Jan. 1, 1889:
Wovoka has a ghost dance vision.

Jan. 2, 1838:
By today's date, 3538 CHICKASAWs have arrived in eastern Indian Territory at Fort Coffee.

William Powell's Discovery of the Mississippi by DeSoto, A.D. 1541is the eighth and final painting to be placed in the Rotunda of the United States Capitol. Considered in the context of the other paintings in the Rotunda, Powell's De Soto details an ideological shift in the United States from 18th-century republicanism to 19th-century imperialism. The following essays analyze the painting's origin and conception, its critical reception, and its decisive role in the pictorial representation and public legitimation of U. S. westward expansion.

Jan. 3, 1541:

On this date, de Soto visits the main CHICKASAW town. He wants to visit Caluca, and he gets guides and interpreters from the CHICKASAW.

Jan. 4, 1874:
Eskiminzin of the ARAVAIPA APACHE, survivor of Camp Grant massacre and arrested as a "military precaution", escapes from San Carlos with many of his band. He will return in 4 months because most of his people are sick and hungry.

Jan. 5, 1852:

One in a series of treaties with California Indians is signed today at Temecula. The treaty is to set aside land and to protect the San Luis Rey Indians from Europeans.

Jan. 6, 1864:

To force the NAVAJOs to move to the Bosque Redondo Encampment, the Army gets Kit Carson to mount an expedition against the NAVAJOs in the Canyon de Chelly. Captain Albert Pfeiffer, and a small force, leaves Fort Canby on this date to meet Carson at the canyon. Carson is called "rope thrower" by the Indians.

NOTE: On this date in 1954, our editor Vicki Lockard was born. We wish her a happy birthday.

Jan. 7, 1802:
President Thomas Jefferson believes that the Indians have more land than they need. He feels that if they become indebted at the government trade houses, they will sell their lands to pay the debts. He has also voiced the opinion that if they become farmers, they will need less land. Today, he will address the WEA, POTAWATOMI, and MIAMI Indians on that latter issues. He extols the virtues of renewable food and clothing supplies. "We will with pleasure furnish you with implements for the most necessary arts, and with persons who may instruct you how to make and use them."

Dr. Ives Goddard (left) interviews Red Thunder Cloud about his writings and Indian medicines on display at the Historic South Main Street Harvest Festival and Crafts Fair, Providence, R.I., October, 1981. (Photo by Moses Goddard)
Jan. 8, 1996:
The last native speaker of the CATAWBA language, Red Thunder cloud, dies today in Worcester, Massachusetts. He is 76 years old.

Jan. 9, 1789:
The treaty with 6 different nations, which is signed today, refers back to the treaty signed on January 21, 1785. Two Indians will be held as hostages until prisoners held by the Indians are returned. New tribal boundary lines will be established. The Indians will be able to hunt in the lands which are ceded in this treaty, if they do so peacefully. The governor of the Northwest Territory must issue all trade licenses for trade with the Indians. No U.S. citizens will be allowed to live on Indian lands, without the Indians approval. Lands set aside for trading posts in the earlier treaty are confirmed. Signed by 28 Indians, and General Arthur St.Claire at Fort Harmar, near present day Marietta, Ohio.

Jan. 10, 1789:

President Rutherford Hayes, by Executive Order, adds to the Gila River Reserve in Pima Agency. This reserve was established February 28, 1859. The order also add to the Pima and Maricopa Indian Reservation. This second part of this order will be canceled on June 14, 1879.

For Information on This Date in Canada visit our friends at:

Canadian Aboriginal News


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