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Canku Ota

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(Many Paths)

An Online Newsletter Celebrating Native America


February 22, 2003 - Issue 81


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This Date In


North American Indian History


from On This Date in North American Indian History at

Feb. 22, 1994:

Jack C. Montgomery, a Cherokee, is a First Lieutenant with the Forty-fifth Infantry in Italy. For his solo actions against three different enemy positions, he will be awarded the Medal of Honor.

Feb. 23, 1540:

According to some sources, the Coronado expedition begins preparations to get underway.

Feb. 24, 1897:

Api-kai-ees (Deerfoot) is a Siksika (Blackfeet) man known for his ability as a long distance runner. He is well known in the Calgary area where a local freeway bears his name. He dies today.

Lone Wolf, Kiowa Chief. Courtesy of Panhandle-Plains Historical Museum.

Feb. 25, 1875:

After the battle of Palo Duro Canyon, Lone Wolf, and his followers, head across the plains. But after a relentless search by the Army, on this date Lone Wolf, and 252 Kiowas, finally surrendered at Fort Sill, in south-central Oklahoma. Lone Wolf eventually is sent as a prisoner-of-war to Fort Marion, in St.Augustine, Florida.

Feb. 26, 1860:

The Wiyots lived on the upper California coast between the Little River and the Bear River. An annual ceremony lasting over a week is held in the village of Tutulwat on an island in the river in what is now Eureka, California. By Wiyot tradition, everyone is welcome at the ceremony, including whites. Tonight after the ceremonies are finished, a group of men from Eureka sneak into the village and attack the participants. Several other nearby villages are also attacked. An estimated eighty to 100 Indians are killed in the sneak attack. An annual vigil is now held on a nearby island to commemorate the event.

Feb. 27, 1836:

General Edmund Gaines has marched from Tampa Bay to Fort King in central Florida to put down the Seminole Uprising. When he arrives in Fort King, he does not find enough supplies to feed his troops or mounts. Gaines orders his 1,100 troops to return to Tampa Bay. While attempting to cross the Withlacoochee River, Gaines is attacked by a Seminole force of 1,500 warriors. Gaines builds a stockade, and send for reinforcements during the battle. After ten days of fighting, both sides agree to a truce, with formal peace talks to come later.

View of the Apalachicola River from Alum Bluff

Feb. 28, 1675:

The Mission Santa Cruz de Sabacola El Menor is dedicated. The mission is for the Sawoklis Indians on the Apalachicola River.

Mar. 1, 1851:

Today, Governor McDougal, of California, will write to the President stating there are over 100,000 hostile Indians in California. He will inform the President that an uprising is going on. This information is false, and the Governor never specifies who's revolting or where the uprising are located. He requests permission to call out the militia as U.S. troops.

Mar. 2, 1867:

An act is passed today which will purchase a reserve for SAUK and FOX of 4.5 square miles.

Mar. 3, 1988:

The Alaska Native Claims Act is amended.

Mar. 4, 1643:

Today, the CANARSEE Indians will negotiate a peace with the Dutch in Fort Amsterdam. The CANARSEE are the Indians who sold Manhattan to Peter Minuit for $24 in trinkets, even though they did not own it.

Albert Pike

Mar. 5, 1861:

The Confederacy appoints, today, Albert Pike, of Arkansas, to negotiate treaties with the Indians in the region. He will establish the "United Nations of the Indian Territory" as an Indian confederacy to oppose the government of Abraham Lincoln.

Mar. 6, 1873:

After hearing from Hooker Jim of the "trap" at the Fairchild ranch, Captain Jack has his sister Mary Write a letter to the commissioners. The letter states Captain Jack's wish for both sides to forget the killings on both sides and for the slate to be wiped clean. Captain Jack wants no more killing, but he will not give up his people to be hanged. He states he has not asked for the whites who have killed his people.

Mar. 7, 1782:

Moravian missionaries had converted many DELAWARE, MAHICAN, and MUNSEE Indians to Christianity. They had established villages in Pennsylvania in 1746, but moved to the Muskingum River in Ohio in 1773 after their old villages were attacked by other Indian tribes. Unfortunately, at the outbreak of the American Revolutionary war, the "Moravian" Indians found themselves directly between American and British forces, and their allies. Both sides believe they "Moravians" were helping the other. Today, Col. David Williamson, and American soldiers from Pennsylvania, surrounded the peaceful village of Gnadenhutten (the 2nd village of the name, the 1st had been in Pennsylvania), and herded the occupants into 2 houses. While some of the militia refused to participate, the majority of the soldiers decided to kill all of the "Moravians." After allowing them to have a final prayer, the soldiers killed the 96 Indian men, women, and children in cold blood. (Some sources say this happened on the 8th.)

For Information on This Date in Canada visit our friends at:

Canadian Aboriginal News

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Canku Ota is a copyright © 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003 of Vicki Lockard and Paul Barry.


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