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Canku Ota

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(Many Paths)

An Online Newsletter Celebrating Native America


September 20, 2003 - Issue 96


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This Date In
North American Indian History


from On This Date in North American Indian History at


Sept. 20, 1805:

Today through October 9th, Lewis and Clark meet with the Nez Perce in the Weippe prairie, east of Weippe, Idaho

Sept. 21, 1638:

The Treaty of Hartford is signed. After losing their battle with the English, and their Indians allies, the Pequots surrender. The surviving members of the tribe are given as servants to the Indian allies of the English.

Sept. 22, 1711:

The Tuscarora Indians, under Chief Hencock, join the Coree, Pamlico, Machapunga, and Bear River Indians in an attack on the white settlements on the Trent and Pamlico Rivers in North Carolina. Almost 130 white adults, and half that many children are killed. The war springs from whites settling in Indian lands, and Indian retaliations. A Swiss promoter, Baron Christoph von Graffenried orders the Indians removed, when he discovers them on lands he has obtained from the Crown, at New Bern, in western North Carolina.

Original Cherokee Supreme Courthouse Building

Sept. 23, 1839:

The Cherokee Nation's Supreme Court is established.

Sept. 24, 1819:

Lewis Cass negotiates a treaty (7 stat. 203) for the United States with the Chippewas. For $1000 a year, the services of a blacksmith, and provisions, the Chippewa give up a large section of land. The treaty is signed in Saginaw, Michigan.

Sept. 25, 1714:

The five Iroquois Nations send the Governor of New York, a letter. They tell the Governor, that the Tuscaroras join the Iroquois Confederacy. Long ago, they had moved away. Now, they return.

Language stocks and dialects in the Chesapeake region circa 1607

Sept. 26, 1675:

Troops under Virginia Colonel John Washington and Maryland Major Thomas Trueman surround the main base of the Susquehannock Indians. They are there to discover if the Indians are responsible for attacking colonial settlements. Trueman calls out the Susquehannock for a conference under a flag of truce. Five Chiefs come out of their fortified position to talk. They deny being involved in the attacks. Trueman has them led away and killed. Trueman gets off with a minor fine from the Maryland Assembly for this act.

Sept. 27, 1827:

According to some historians, today marks the end of the "Winnebago Expedition." After the "Red Bird War", which started on June 29, 1827, Winnebago Chief Red Bird surrenders, in response to the army's threat to destroy the entire tribe. Red Bird is found guilty of murdering several settlers and rivermen; but, he dies in prison before he is sentenced.

Sept. 28, 1867:

In the final day of a three day fight, the First Cavalry, Twenty-Third Infantry and Boise Indian scouts, fight with a combined force of Paiute, Pit River and Modoc Indians in Infernal Canyon, near Pitt River, south of modern Alturas, California. A total of one officer, six soldiers, and one civilian are killed. Eleven soldiers are wounded. Indians losses are twenty killed, twelve wounded and two captured.

To mark the site of the Pawnee Republic, where

caused the Spanish flag to be lowered
and the flag of the United States to be raised,
September 29, 1806

Sept. 29, 1806:

Zebulon Pike holds a grand council with the Pawnee. Pike estimates 400 Pawnee warriors attend. He hopes to win their allegiance to the United States, rather than Spain.

Sept. 30, 1730:

In British Court in London, seven Cherokee leaders sign the "Articles of Agreement" with the Lords Commissioners. It is a formal alliance covering allegiance, peace and the return of captives.

October 1, 1539:

Today, de Soto's expedition reaches the APALACHEE village of Ivitachuco (also called Ibitachuco), in north eastern Florida. The spanish will set up camp near the village. Throughout the evening, the Indians will shoot arrows at the Spanish with little effect. The Narvaez Expedition had also visited the village in June 25, 1528, which may somewhat account for the hostile reception de Soto's Expedition will receive.

October 2, 1685:

According to some sources, an agreement is reached today for the DELEWARE Indians to cede some lands to Pennsylvania.

October 3, 1786:

A group of 30 settlers, organized by the McNitt family, are moving from Virginia to Kentucky. Tonight near present day London, Kentucky, they are attacked by a CHICKAMAUGA war party. Twenty-one of the Europeans will be killed, and 5 will be captured. Of the 4 people who escape, one, a pregnant woman, will hide in a hollow log, where she gives birth.

For Information on This Date in Canada visit our friends at:

Canadian Aboriginal News

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