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Canku Ota

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(Many Paths)

An Online Newsletter Celebrating Native America


May 22, 2004 - Issue 113


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This Date In
North American Indian History


from On This Date in North American Indian History at


May 22, 1863:

As a part of the "Owens Valley War" in California, Paiute Chief Captain George arrives at Camp Independence. He tells the soldiers the Paiutes want peace. This effectively ends the war.

May 23, 1838:

Under the provisions of the New Echota Treaty of December 29, 1835, this the deadline for Cherokees to emigrate to the Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma). Any Cherokees still east of the Mississippi River, after today, are forced to leave. Only an estimated 2,000 Cherokees have emigrated to the Indian Territory by today's date, according to government estimates. General Winfield Scott is charged with removing the recalcitrant Cherokees. Many are forced from their homes at bayonet point. The illegal treaty is publicly proclaimed by President Jackson, two years ago, on this date.

May 24, 1539:

Mexican Viceroy Don Antonio de Mendoza has decided to send an expedition to search for wealthy cities north of Mexico. On March 7, 1539, Friar Marcos de Niza started the expedition from Culiacan. Accordiong to Niza’s journal, he finally sees Cibola, although he never sets foot in the pueblo. His report will lead to future expeditions looking for the "Seven Cities of Gold."

The "Lady of Cofitachequi"

May 25, 1776:

The United States Congress resolves that it would be "highly expedient" if they can engage Indians to fight on their side of the Revolutionary War.

May 26, 1540:

The "Lady of Cofitachequi" has been taken with the de Soto expedition, against her will. With a large quantity of the pearls that de Soto's men took from her village, she escapes.

May 27, 1607:

Virginia has it's first significant battle between Indians and European settlers.

Relative Positions of the Virginia Indian Tribes in the Seventeenth Century

May 28, 1851:

One in a series of treaties is signed with California Indians at Dent's and Ventine's Crossings. The purpose of the treaty is to reserve lands for the Indians and to protect them from angry Europeans.

May 29, 1677:

Pamunkey, Roanoke, Nottaway and Nansemond Tribes of the Powhatan Confederacy sign a treaty with the English in Virginia.

May 30, 1650:

An ordinance is passed against the making of counterfeit, or "fake," wampum by the Directors of the Council of the New Netherlands. European manufacturers are producing the fakes, which are being used to pay Indians.

Tensions between the Navajo Indians and American military forces in the New Mexico Territory resulted in the Navajo War, which lasted from 1860 to 1864. During a final standoff at Canyon de Chelly, fears of starvation and harsh winter conditions forced t he Navajo to surrender to Kit Carson and his troops in January 1864. Carson ordered the destruction of their property and organized the Long Walk of the Navajo to the Bosque Redondo, a reservation already occupied by Mescalero Apaches on the Pecos River. In this photo, the Navajo are gathered at Fort Sumner, the post that was built to watch over the reservation. Government supplies were inadequate for the tribe's needs, and their four-year exile was marked by hunger and disease. When they were permitted to return to their homeland in 1868, the Navajo vowed never to make war with the white man again.

May 31, 1796:

The Treaty of the Seven Tribes of Canada is signed by three Chiefs at New York City. The tribes give up all claims to lands in New York, except six square miles in Saint Regis. They are paid 1233 pounds, six shillings, and eight pence now, and 213 pounds, six shillings, eight pence annually, if five more Chiefs show up and sign the treaty.

June 1, 1868:

After the "long walk" to the Bosque Redondo Reservation in New Mexico, the NAVAJOs suffered from the poor conditions on the reservation, and from homesickness for their old lands. After numerous visits from Washington representatives, General Sherman visited the NAVAJO. They again asked to go back to their old lands. They promised the keep the peace and the old treaties. Sherman talked with them, and he listened to them. With a new treaty in hand, Sherman says he will let them go, if they sign, and obey, the new treaty. The NAVAJOs agree, even though they will lose some of their land as a part of the new agreement. On this date, Barboncito, Armijo, Delgadito, Herrero Grande, Manuelito, and others sign the new treaty.

June 2, 1924:

Indians become U.S. citizens today.

June 3, 1833:

Today, Secretary of War Lewis Cass gives orders directly to the United States Marshal's office to remove white settlers, and trespassers, from CREEK lands in Alabama.

June 4, 1647:

Chief Canonicus, Chief of the NARRAGANSETSs when the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth Rock, dies today. He is approximately 88 years old.

For Information on This Date in Canada visit our friends at:

Canadian Aboriginal News

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