a wide grassy bank of the Missouri River on the Yankton Sioux/Ihanktonwan
Oyate Reservation in South Dakota, Brook Spotted Eagle stands watching
five young girls raise a tepee. It's early August, and the girls
are taking part in a four-day coming-of-age ceremony revived in
the 1990s by the Brave Heart Women's Society.
was part of the first group who went through this Isnati coming-of-age
ceremony 13 years ago," Brook recalls. Brook's mother, Faith
Spotted Eagle, is one of the women who re-established the Brave
Hearts. With American and European contact, many such societies
and ceremonies have been lost in the past 100 years. In 1994, Faith
and the Brave Hearts interviewed grandmas from three states about
what they remembered of the Isnati Awica Dowanpi coming-of-age ceremony.
the old days," Faith Spotted Eagle says, "as soon as a
girl had her first moon, her menses, she would immediately be isolated
from the rest of the camp and begin a four-day ceremony where she
was taught by other women. So we symbolically set up one camp a
year and have the girls come in for four days."
traditional Yankton Sioux culture, everyone had a niche, a role.
One of the roles of the women who were part of the Brave Hearts
was to retrieve the dead and wounded from the battlefield and help
the families. "In a way we are doing the same thing today with
the modern-day Brave Hearts," Faith Spotted Eagle says, "bringing
back our people from emotional death."
cracks in the distance as the girls, dressed in long skirts and
tank tops, unroll the canvas tepee. This is where they will sleep
together, away from the rest of the camp. A group of grandmas and
aunties yell instructions from the sideline: "A little to the
north, to the north! Hurry up girls before the rain comes!"
women's tepees have 13 poles because we have 13 moons in a year,"
explains Judy Drapeau, a grandmother who helps every year. "That's
why we call it a moon camp because it's a special time for women
to learn about themselves."
one time, all of this was underground. We only got the American
Indian Freedom of Religion Act in the late '70s. So we had
to stand our ground to have these things out in the open
Thunderhawk, an activist and longtime American Indian Movement
first thing you need to do is put up your own lodge you need
to have that strength to house yourself," says Marissa Joseph,
21. Adopted at birth, Joseph spent a large part of her youth bouncing
was really rough lost and floating and drifting," she
says. "By my early teens, I was a pretty strong alcoholic.
I didn't know who I was and what I needed. I really wanted to not
live anymore. The summer of my 14th year I went through Isnati.
I felt like I was found."
the four days, the girls cannot touch food or drink. They are fed
by their mothers and other women in the camp.
was like, 'Oh my God, I don't want to do this,' " says Kiari
World Turner, 16. "Your mom has to feed you and give you water.
I didn't like my mom. I didn't trust her."
Bull Bear, who has been through the ceremony with her daughter,
says the feeding feels a little like heartbreak "that
treating them like a baby one last time before they become women,"
she says. "No longer would she be my little girl to feed anymore.
You really begin to start the foundation of what that adult relationship
is with a mother and daughter."
the second day, the girls pile into the back of a pick-up truck
to gather traditional herbs and medicines. Faith Spotted Eagle points
out a little plant called "too proud," and yellow cornflowers,
which have roots that when ground up are used to treat toothaches.
The girls pick buffalo berries and armfuls of wildflowers and women's
sage for the bouquets they'll carry at the womanhood ceremony.
group of young boys keeps the fires in camp burning all day and
all night. Men aren't allowed in the girl's camp, but young boys
like Baby J are allowed. His job is to sing to the girls outside
their tepee in the morning to wake them up.
Heart, a Brave Heart grandmother, arrives in the afternoon and sizes
up the girls. For the past 13 years, she's made the girls' ribbon
dresses for the ceremony.
didn't have this when I became of age," she says. "Growing
up at a boarding school, they came from the Bureau of Indian Affairs
and they took us. I must have been 5. And I didn't see my mom and
my grandparents for nine years. When I was older, they assigned
me a little first-grader, and I had to teach her English. I'd braid
her hair and take care of her. Then they'd switch everybody all
around and I'd get another little girl. They wouldn't let us get
close to each other."
before dusk, Marissa Joseph arrives to teach the girls how to make
ceremonial food dried buffalo meat jerky with buffalo berries.
"Every year I try to teach what I know, bring that back to
re-create that feeling I felt," she says. Older Isnati girls
return year after year to feed the younger girls and teach them
ceremonial songs and beading.
the days, the elders talk to the girls about modesty, courtship,
pregnancy and suicide, a serious problem on the reservations.
times, we have a nutritionist come in and talk to them about eating
right and not just drinking Gatorade, about not being afraid of
doctors and having to get a check-up," Brook Spotted Eagle
says. "Sexual abuse and incest can pose a huge problem within
families. There's no easy way to talk about these issues, so you
just have to get them out there. And we're always talking about
this concept of a camp circle. We can't be attacking each other
and doing this mean girls stuff."
Thunderhawk, an activist and longtime American Indian Movement advocate,
sits watching the girls as they learn how to bead their small leather
medicine bags. "As a grandmother and great-grandmother, I just
wanted to come and spend a few hours," she says. "This
is part of what I need to do. At one time, all of this was underground.
We only got the American Indian Freedom of Religion Act in the late
'70s. So we had to stand our ground to have these things out in
the open again."
the last day, each girl spends time with her mother or an auntie
in the tepee. The older woman bathes the girl in sage water and
talks to her about her birth, her young days and her future.
Kiari World Turner says her mother washed her hair and told her
stories about when she was a little girl: "Good stories. I
guess we found each other."
the late afternoon, dressed in their ribbon dresses, moccasins and
beaded regalia, the girls are introduced to the community as women
and members of the Brave Heart Women's Society.
than 90 girls have taken part in the Isnati ceremony in the Ihanktonwan
territory over the past 13 years.
I went through Isnati, my grandmother gave me the name Gray Eagle
Woman," remembers Marissa. "My sister's name is Stand
Strong Woman. She's the baby girl, and she's lived a hard life as
well, and she's been able to stand strong. It only seems fitting
that you would change your name with where you are in your life.
The Brave Heart Society, these grandmothers, this connection with
these girls I've made. This is my sixth year into it. I'm like a
6-year-old trying to live a new life. I'm still pretty new to a
lot of things."