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Canku Ota
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(Many Paths)
An Online Newsletter Celebrating Native America
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Favorite Sites
collected by Paul and Vicki
The mission of THE PIEGAN INSTITUTE is to serve as a vehicle to research, promote and preserve Native languages. Founded in 1987, the Institute has its national headquarters and community-based programs on the Blackfeet Indian Reservation in northwest Montana. Our community-based objectives are to increase the number of Blackfeet language speakers, to increase the cultural knowledge base of community members, and to actively influence positive community-based change. Our national objectives are to promote support for Native language issues through advocacy and education and to provide a voice to the national and international dialogue on Native Language restoration.
Cuts Wood Academy
Cuts Wood Academy is nationally recognized as a successful and effective model for Native language immersion with a multi-generational approach. Cuts Wood Academy's mission is to use the Blackfeet language as the tool (not object) of instruction within a local context to produce fluent speakers of the Blackfeet language.
American Indian Services
American Indian Services (AIS) is a nonprofit organization that assists Native Americans in developing their human and natural resources in order to help them make a contribution to society without detracting from the culture and background from which they have emerged. Over the last forty years, AIS scholarships have made it possible for thousands of Native Americans to attend college, obtain degrees, and provide needed support in their communities.
Center for Native American Health
The Center for Native American Health aims to be New Mexico's best practice for Native American health workforce creation, health equity promotion, healthy communities support and development.
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Warsaw Uprising
The Warsaw Uprising began on August 1,1944 when the Polish Home Army, consisting of about 40,000 resistors, began shooting at German troops in the streets during World War II. The Polish resistance fighters were hoping to be relieved by the Soviet Union’s Red Army, but the Soviet troops stopped short on the eastern edge of the city. The Warsaw Uprising was the largest single military effort lead by European resistance forces during the war, but the Poles were defeated after 63 days.
American Radio Works: Red Runs the Vistula
"In August 1944, five years after the start of World War II, the people of Warsaw, armed with just a few guns and gasoline bombs, rose up against the German occupation of their city. The uprising was meant to last just 48 hours. Instead, it went on for two months." Listen to the hour-long documentary, or read the transcript and supporting articles. There is also a resource list of additional websites.
Info Poland: The Warsaw Uprising
"It is estimated that during the ensuing 63 days, 250,000 perished in the ruins of Warsaw. Eventually, the Home Army surrendered to the Germans." From the University of Buffalo, Info Poland has great content but horrible navigation. To progress from page to page, look for the tiny right arrow near the upper right. If there is no right arrow, you may have landed in a new browser tab. If so, close your current browser tab/window in order to return to the main exhibit.
Polish Underground Movement Study Trust
Founded in London in 1947, the Polish Underground Movement Study Trust is a research institution that collects data about Polish resistance (1939-1945) during World War II. Their website is a treasure trove of articles for high-school and college students. "Almost from the start the Soviet Union showed an openly hostile attitude to the uprising. The roots of this attitude lay in the Soviet dictator, Joseph Stalin's idea of Poland's future, which was totally contrary to that of the Polish government-in-exile led by Stanislaw Mikolajczyk."
Project InPosterum: Warsaw Uprising 1944
Warsaw Uprising 1944 is my pick of the day because it offers great content in a modern layout that is easy to traverse. It is published by the nonprofit Project InPosterum, whose purpose is to promote educational material about World War II and it's effect on Central and Eastern Europe. Visit for the Timeline, Photos, and FAQ. "The Polish Underground State was a covert administrative, political, and military structure operating in occupied Poland during World War 2 (1939–1945). The Underground State organized, coordinated and engaged in resistance against German forces."

Warsaw Rising
Use your mouse scroll wheel or the down button to scroll through Chapter 4 of Warsaw Rising. It covers the Polish Underground State from 1939 to 1945. The background music can be disabled by clicking on the music note button in the right-hand bottom corner. This interactive exhibit was produced in cooperation with the Warsaw Rising Museum to mark the 70th anniversary of the Warsaw Uprising.

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Photography Tips and Tutorials
Nowadays, digital photography includes both cell phones and standalone cameras, but most of the following tutorials focus on digital single-lens reflex or mirrorless cameras that allow you to control aperture, shutter speed, and ISO sensitivity. But keep in mind, there is no need to go overboard with equipment. With creativity and know-how you can create excellent photos with even the simplest (or oldest) of cameras.
Digital Photography School
Darren Rowse is the "digital photography enthusiast" behind Digital Photography School, which includes a large tips-section and an active user-forum. If you're looking for a place to start, there is a Tips for Beginners section listed under Tips & Tutorials. The Forum discussion board includes weekly assignments, a place to share your pictures, and a section for member critiques (please read the rules and do not submit more than one critique request per day.)
Exposure Guide
Exposure Guide has short tutorials divided into Photography Basics, Photography Tips, and Image Editing. Their most popular posts are listed in the right-hand column and include topics such as Exposure 101, White Balance, and Focusing Basics. "Focus enables you to isolate a subject and specifically draw the viewer's eye to exactly where you want it. The first thing to understand about focus is depth of field." Beginner's Guide to Photography
"Taking a great photograph has nothing to do with new cameras, fancy accessories, or rules of thirds. The difference is how you ... the photographer ... see the world and capture it on film." With this philosophy, Photonhead presents a Beginner's Guide to Photography, Photography Tips, Photo Editing Tips, and (drum roll, please) SimCam. The SimCam (a camera simulator) is an interactive exercise that demonstrates the sometimes confusing concepts of aperture, film speed, and camera shake. Even if you only use a point-and-shoot digital camera, understanding these basics will make you a better photographer.
Short Courses
Short Courses is my digital photography pick of day for its encyclopedic collection of online tutorials. Topics include choosing a camera, using a digital camera, desktop lighting, and digital photography workflow. In addition to the free online courses, author Dennis Curtin sells a series of books about specific digital cameras, such as "A Short Course in the Fine Art of Classic Fuji X100T Photography."

Udemy: Karl Taylor's Free Photography Course
Udemy is an online learning marketplace where anyone can take a course or create a course to teach others. Karl Taylor has enrolled more than 93,430 students in his Free Photography Course that introduces DSLR photography in fourteen lessons. " Some of these lessons are online videos and others are downloadable PDF fact sheets. You can take on the lessons at your own pace. There is no time limit so enjoy the learning at a pace that suits your daily routine."

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Voting Rights Act of 1965
On August 6, 1965, President Lyndon Johnson signed the Voting Rights Act into law. Its purpose was to remove legal barriers at the state and municipal levels that prevented Black Americans from voting. Then in 2013, key aspects of the law were struck down by the Supreme Court. As the 50th anniversary of the original bill approaches, Congress is working on an amended version that would fix the enforcement issues caused by the Supreme Court two years ago.
History: Voting Rights Act
"After the U.S. Civil War (1861- 65), the 15th Amendment, ratified in 1870, prohibited states from denying a male citizen the right to vote based on ‘race, color or previous condition of servitude.' Nevertheless, in the ensuing decades, various discriminatory practices were used to prevent African Americans, particularly those in the South, from exercising their right to vote." Visit History for an overview of the Voting Rights Act explained with videos, articles and speeches.
Leadership Conference: Voting Rights Act
The Leadership Conference on Civil and Human Rights is a coalition of more than 200 U.S. organizations promoting and protecting civil rights. "Congress has reauthorized the VRA four times, most recently in 2006, when both the House and the Senate approved the measure overwhelmingly in a bipartisan manner. Congress conducted more than 20 hearings, heard from more than 90 expert witnesses, and collected more than 15,000 pages of testimony documenting the continued need for and constitutionality of the statute."
New York Times: Between the Lines of the Voting Rights Act Opinion
This interactive special from the New York Times explains the 2015 Supreme Court decision that held part of the 1965 Voting Rights Act unconstitutional. "The decision in Shelby County v. Holder revolves around Section 4 of the Voting Rights Act, which establishes a ‘coverage formula' to determine which states and local governments fall under Section 5, and therefore need to get approval before changing their voting laws." Suitable for high-school students, grownups, and lawyer wannabes.
Teaching Tolerance: The Voting Rights Act, 1965 and beyond
This classroom resource has something for both students and teachers. Students should look through the videos and PDFs listed under Materials Needed. These include topics such as Voting Issues Today, States with Voting Restrictions and Percentage of Registered Voters in Black Voting-Age Population. For teachers, there are lesson plans for grades 6 to 12. For everyone, there are additional resources listed at the bottom of the page, under the headline You Might Also Like.

US Department of Justice: Voting Rights Act of 1965
This Department of Justice site summarizes the history of federal voting rights laws, from the 1965 enactment of the Voting Rights Act to the 2006 amendments, which "eliminated the provision for voting examiners." Click on Recent Activity (in the left-hand menu) to learn about the June 25, 2013 Supreme Court decision that held certain parts of the Voting Rights Act unconstitutional.

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Manhattan Project
The Manhattan Project (1939 – 1946) was a secret military research and development project to produce a nuclear weapon during World War II. The project began because it was feared that Nazi Germany was working on a similar plan. Some of the world’s best scientists, engineers and mathematicians participated in the Manhattan Project, which produced four atomic bombs. Two of these were dropped on Japan in 1945, resulting in their unconditional surrender.
American Museum of Natural History: The Manhattan Project
"In 1938, three chemists working in a laboratory in Berlin made a discovery that would alter the course of history: they split the uranium atom. The energy released when this splitting, or fission, occurs is tremendous — enough to power a bomb. But before such a weapon could be built, numerous technical problems had to be overcome." Visit to read about the letter Albert Einstein wrote to U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt suggesting that the US work on an atomic bomb and Einstein's reaction to the bombing of Hiroshima.
Atomic Archive: The Manhattan Project
"Beginning with the scientific developments of the pre-war years, the monograph details the role of United States government in conducting a secret, nationwide enterprise that took science from the laboratory and into combat with an entirely new type of weapon." This 99-page site offers a detailed look at the Manhattan Project, starting with the Einstein letter of 1938 and ending with the creation of the Atomic Energy Commission in 1947.
Contra Costa County Office of Education: The Race to Build the Atomic Bomb
This is an excellent site, but suffers from an outdated design. The key to getting the most out of your visit is to understand that you need to scroll horizontally to view the content. Start with the timeline, then continue down the menu (scroll left to see the menu) to Competition, Exodus of Scientists, Physics, Those Responsible, and Research. The site also has lesson plans for teachers and a fantastic list of additional resources.
US Dept of Energy: The Manhattan Project, an Interactive History
"The advent of nuclear weapons, made possible by the Manhattan Project, not only helped bring an end to the Second World War — it ushered in the atomic age and determined how the next war, the Cold War, would be fought." Although many sub-sections of this site remain unfinished, there is enough here to warrant a visit. Best clicks include Adventures Inside the Atom (a comic book history of nuclear energy produced in 1948), List of Events (a timeline guide to the Atomic Era), and the list of Department of Energy publications that are available as PDFs (look in Resources.)

US History: The Manhattan Project
"In late 1941, the American effort to design and build an atomic bomb received its code name — the Manhattan Project. At first the research was based at only a few universities — Columbia University, the University of Chicago and the University of California at Berkeley." Use the Next/Back links at the top and bottom of the page to traverse the site, and be sure to check out the related links in the left-hand column.

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Students And Teachers Against Racism announces their new website that offers insight into the Native American perspective to teachers and educators.
Changing Winds Advocacy Center
Through presentations, classroom sessions, curriculum, fund raising, charitable works, and multi-media efforts, we seek to raise public awareness of the stereotyping, discrimination, racism and other unique situations facing Native Americans.
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Canku Ota is a free Newsletter celebrating Native America, its traditions and accomplishments . We do not provide subscriber or visitor names to anyone. Some articles presented in Canku Ota may contain copyright material. We have received appropriate permissions for republishing any articles. Material appearing here is distributed without profit or monetary gain to those who have expressed an interest. This is in accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107.
Canku Ota is a copyright © 2000 - 2015 of Vicki Williams Barry and Paul Barry.
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