A Newsletter for Kids from a Native American View


August 7, 1999 Issue 18, Volume 1

Quote of the Week
"According to the San Francisco Chronicle, the first few years of the 1990s saw a greater growth of youth activism than this country has ever known. "

This Week in Native American History

August 7, 1790: Alexander McGillivray and 23 other CREEK Indians sign a treaty in New York City acknowledging the sovereignty of the United States. CREEK prisoners, white and black, must be returned. SEMINOLEs were are also required to return former black slaves living among them. SEMINOLEs and non McGillivaray CREEKs rejected the treaty. (McGillivaray was secretly given the title "brigidier/general" for agreeing to this treaty.)

August 8, 1587: John White, leader of Roanoke colony, and 24 men kill a CROATAN Indian to punish Indians for killing a colony member. Some historians believe this might have led to the eventual disappearance of the Roanoke colony.

August 9, 1911: Ishi comes into Oroville, California.

August 10, 1815: Handsome Lake, whose vision helped him conquer alcoholism and live life promoting traditional Indian ways, died today in Onondaga. His teachings have been handed down among the IROQUOIS (Haudeonsaunee) Nation.

August 11, 1762: British in Pennsylvania begin an 18 day conference with the CONOY, DELAWARE, KICKAPOO, MIAMI, SHAWNEE, and the SIX NATIONS over land and prisoner issues.

August 12, 1676: Seeking revenge for a brother killed by King Philip's hands, a WAMPANOAG warrior leads white soldiers to Phillip's camp in a nearby swamp. As Philip attempts to escape, he is killed. His head is taken to Plymouth and displayed on a pole for over 20 years. This ends King Philip's War, in which up to 600 English and 3,000 Natives were killed.

King Phillip

August 13, 1868: The last of 370 treaties is signed between the United States Government and Indian tribes.

August 14, 1559: An expedition of 13 ships, several priests, 500 soldiers, and 1000 settlers arrive in Pensacola Bay, Florida. Most will be killed or starve because of a hurricane which strikes several days later.

August 15, 1642: The Queen of Sweden instructs New Sweden's governor (Pennsylvania) to treat "the wild nations" kindly and humanely. She also stated Indians were the "rightful lords" of this land, and must be treated accordingly.

August 16, 1812: Tecumseh, Sir Isaac Brock, their warriors, and soldiers force America's Fort Detroit to surrender.

August 17, 1806: Sacajawea and her husband leave the Lewis and Clark expedition.

August 18, 1863: Trying to starve NAVAJO into submission, Kit Carson puts a bounty on NAVAJO livestock. Every good horse or mule would bring twenty dollars. Each sheep would earn one dollar.

Navajo Family

August 19, 1854: High Forehead, MINICONJOU SIOUX, kills a sickly cow, and Second Lieutenant John L. Grattan leads 30 volunteers to Conquering Bear's BRULE SIOUX camp, demanding the Indian who shot the cow. The Indians won't hand over High Forehead. Shots ring out, and artillery gunners open fire on the camp. Conquering Bear is hit. All but one of Grattan's men is killed.

August 20, 1851: A treaty is signed with California Indians setting aside Indian lands and promise for protection from Americans.


Heroes of The Week
Canada's Assembly of First Nations/National Congress of American Indians

"Let us form one body, one heart, and defend to the last warrior our country,
our homes, our liberty, and the graves of our fathers."

Tecumseh, Shawnee

The largest gathering ever of Canadian and U.S. Indians leaders recently met in Vancouver, British Columbia, for a four day conference. There, over 4,000 Indian leaders adopted a "declaration of kinship and cooperation." This declaration is a commitment to improve and increase ties between Native nations living on both sides of the Canadian/US border.

"We are divided by locality, but not by destiny," said Phil Fontaine, grand chief of the Assembly of First Nations. The conference's theme is "Uniting First Nations: Tecumseh's Vision," a tribute to the great Shawnee chief, Tecumseh, who dreamed of uniting all Indian tribes in a powerful confederation against white settlement. When Tecumseh was killed in 1813, his dream faltered, but never died. 200 years later, Tecumseh's dream was hailed by chiefs during their welcoming speeches at the conference's opening session.

"It amazes me -- the strength, the determination, the willpower of our people -- that we gather here to try to realize Tecumseh'sdream," said chief Ernie Campbell of the Vancouver-area Musqueam tribe. "[Despite] all the [past] obstacles we're not going anywhere!"

The U.S.-Canadian border stretches between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, dividing traditional homelands of many Native peoples.It is estimated that 2.2 million Indians, less than 1% of the population, live in the United States; 800,000 Indians live in Canada, comprising almost 3% of the population. Ron Allen, president of the National Congress of American Indians, believes unifying across the border could pressure both governments into addressing Native concerns.

"We have common struggles and face common threats," Allen said. "We have survived a 500-year onslaught. We are growing stronger politically and in numbers."

Follow the link for an easy to read map.

Canada's Assembly of First Nations
AFN Home Page

National Congress of the American Indian:

Words of the Shawnee

Recipe of the Week


3 1/4 cups shelled sunflower seeds
3 1/4 cups water
2 1/2 teaspoons salt
6 Tablespoons corn flour
2/3 cups corn oil


1. Put sunflower seeds, water, and salt into a pot.
2. Cover and let simmer for 90 minutes.
3. When well cooked, crush the seeds to make a paste.
4. Add corn flour, 1 tablespoon at a time, to thicken,
while working seed dough with your hands.
5. Cool a little.
6. Make small, flat pancakes (about 5" diameter.)
7. Heat oil and fry both sides. Add more oil if needed.
8. Drain well and eat.

Another Circle Mended
The Return of the Ghost Dance Shirt
(By Garnet1654)

On the weekend of July 31, the Lakota people were witness to the mending of another circle. The so-called "Glasgow Ghost Dance Shirt" came home----to Eagle Butte, S.D. and then to Wounded Knee, S.D. This shirt had been in Scotland for over 100 years.

In 1992, John Earl and his wife were visiting Scotland, from Atlanta, Ga. The shirt was in a corner of an exhibit commemorating the 500 year anniversary of Christopher Columbus's voyage.

John says, "The shirt found me. When I first saw it, my heart stopped. It is of a value that is very difficult to communicate to someone who is not a Native American."

Upon his return to the U.S., John notified attorney Mario Gonzales about the shirt. Mr. Gonzales represents the Wounded Knee Survivors Association. The Association debated the best way to bring the shirt home. Finally, Marcella LeBeau, the secretary of the Association, traveled to Scotland with her son and John Earl, to plead for the return of the shirt.

The "Glasgow Ghost Dance Shirt" accompanied by Chief Eugene Ryan of the Cheyenne River Sioux Tribe.

"For the remaining descendants, it will bring closure to this sad and horrible event in the history of our people and the return of the ghost dance shirt will bring about some healing.

"The sacred shirt was stolen from the back of a warrior whose body was buried naked in a mass grave. No culture in the world would do this." Said LeBeau.

John Earl relating how the Ghost Dance Shirt found him.

John Earl also says, "The shirt is not really the issue. It is about the treatment of the Lakota people by the US. It is about the rebuilding of self-esteem and of a nation suppressed.

LeBeau's main concern is for the youth, who need to know first hand their history, to come to terms with that history and be able to move forward.

The ceremonies to welcome the shirt home began in Eagle Butte, with a "wiping away the tears." On Saturday, many descendants of Wounded Knee voiced their feelings about receiving the shirt. The visitors from Scotland also spoke of friendship and healing. A particularly poignant part of the service was when bagpiper Craig Hazelbaker played a special song written for the occasion.

On Sunday, the shirt traveled to Wounded Knee, where more ceremonies were held. The Survivors Association covered the site of the mass graves with star quilts. At the close of the ceremonies, the quilts were gifted to the Scot visitors, John Earl, and Craig Hazelbaker. During the gifting, four eagles flew overhead, to welcome the shirt home.

"The sacred ghost dance shirt is present for viewing and the paying of respect and honor as it makes the full circle, Wounded Knee, Glasgow, Scotland, Cheyenne River, and back to Wounded Knee, said Marcella LeBeau.

If There Were Only 100 People on Earth...
(information provided by AIMNJSG@webtv.net]

57 would be Asians
21 would be Europeans
14 would be from the Western Hemisphere, both north and south
8 would be Africans

52 would be female
48 would be male

70 would be people of color
30 would be white

70 would be non-Christian
30 would be Christian

1 would be near death;
1 would be near birth

80 would live in substandard housing


50 would suffer from malnutrition


70 would be unable to read


1 would own a computer


1 would have a college education

6 people would possess 59% of the entire world's wealth

All 6 would be from the United States


The Hunger Site
(Megwich, Lorena Watson)

"Every 3.6 seconds, someone dies of hunger,
and 3/4 of the deaths are to children under 5."

Since June 1999, over 1,000,000 free meals have been given to starving people across the world. And with a point and click of your computer's mouse, you can do the same!

Visit The Hunger Site [http://www.thehungersite.com/] once each day, click the button, and world sponsors donate food to help feed our earth's hungry people!

All donations are presented to The United Nations World Food Program for distribution. What a marvelous way for the even the youngest TURTLE TRACKS readers to become involved!

The Hunger Site Home - Donate Food for Free to Give to Feed Hungry People in the World
Words from the United Nations
You can help WFP save lifes